Create Windows Bootable USB
1 – WinToFlash :
As you can see from the above screenshot, it’s the easiest software you can use to create a bootable windows. It can create a bootable version of windows xp/2003 , winPE XP/2003 , Windows vista/2008/7/8 setup to USB drive, and some more…. .
2 – Windows 7 USB/DVD download tool :
Windows 7 USB/DVD download tool is created by Microsoft itself to make it easier to create a bootable USB drive or burn windows 7 Iso file to a DVD.
3 – A Bootable USB :
A Bootable USB is a little app made to let you install windows vista/2008/7 from a USB drive.
4 – A Bootable USB ( By Askvg.com ) :
Seems to have the same name as the above one.But it’s got a few more options and it works for x64 versions of windows as well.
5 – Setup from USB :
A simple and easy to use app to make a bootable windows vista/7 USB drive. Required .NetFramework 4.
6 – OStoGO :
A small app made to put your windows vista/7 DVD into a USB drive.
An advanced tool to create bootable windows USB. Should be used with care.
A good app that should be used with care that can let you create a bootable windows or Linux.Allows you to test in QEMU
9- FlashBoot :
A nice software that can put Windows XP/Vista/7 on a USB flash drive.Worth about $38 USD.
Create MultiBootable USB
10 – YUMI – (Your Universal Multiboot Installer) :
YUMI can be used to create a MultiBootable USB drive with multiple Operating Systems, Antivirus Utilities, Recovery tools…… and more. Uses Syslinux. One other really nice feature with it is that it can download the ISO file for you before using it on USB drive.
11 – XBoot :
A really nice piece of software that can create a Multibootable ISO and USB drive. That can contain some antivirus tools, utilities, live versions of Linux ad windows installers. All you need to do is to put the ISO files in the ISO folder and enjoy your powerful USB disk.
Create Linux and Others Bootable USB
13 – Universal USB Installer :
One really nice app that is quite the same as YUMI , except that it doesn’t support MultiBoot, however, it supports a large variety of Linux distros, Antivirus utilities, Windows vista/7, Hiren’s Boot CD,….. and a lot more.Can also download the ISO for you.
14 – LiveUSB Install :
A small utility that you can use to create a bootable Linux ( with many distros supported, in addition to some Antivirus rescue disks and some more tools). Got some other options including writing .img files to a USB disk.
15 – UNetbootin :
16 – MultiSystem ( Linux ) :
18 – CD 2 USB :
Simply, create a bootable USB from a Bootable ISO.
20 – ISO2Disc :
A tiny app that can burn the ISO file to a CD/DVD or a USB flash Drive.
Previously I had mentioned How To Download Torrent Files using IDM in this post. That was using torcache. Here is another similar method to download using Torrent Files using IDM for some really quick download Speed. Follow the Steps below.
- First get the Torrent file of the Game or the Software you want to download. It is of the format [.torrent] like in the image below.
- Go to ZbigZ.com. Here upload the .torrent file you had downloaded earlier or paste the link to that file and Click on the Go button.
- Now all you need to do it to wait till the Torrent file is cached. The Problem with caching is that sometime it might take more time. But more often it happens within a few minutes.
- Click on the Download Button and When you are asked to Choose an Account, Choose a Free Account. And then Downloading will start.
Thats it. Do let us know whether you had to wait a lot to download using this method or else you can always go back to this post and use this method.
Make IDM ( Internet Download Manager ) full version through HOSTS File Trick.
The procedure is really easy to follow and you can make this happen just in few seconds.
Follow below steps .:
1. Make sure you have installed the latest version of IDM
from the official creators website.
2. Now after you have downloaded and installed the latest version
just close the IDM and now go to start menu and make a search for Notepad.
3. Now right click on Notepad and than Run It As Administrator.
4. Now navigate to .:
C: > Windows > System 32 > Drivers > etc. > Hosts.
5. When you are in the etc. folder you might not see any files their
as you have click on show all files on the right hand side below.
6. Now open the Hosts file With Notepad and paste all the below lines ,
Like I have Pasted In Below Image.
7. So now as you can see in the above image how
I have pasted all the lines @ the end of the Hosts file,
you have to do same as above, now hit save.
8. Now when you have saved the HOSTS File
you can simply enter any serials from below in your IDM Registration page
9. Now enjoy your full version IDM without purchasing or
patching it totally genuine and totally legal.
1 ================================================================ 2 Documentation for Kdump - The kexec-based Crash Dumping Solution 3 ================================================================ 4 5 This document includes overview, setup and installation, and analysis 6 information. 7 8 Overview 9 ======== 10 11 Kdump uses kexec to quickly boot to a dump-capture kernel whenever a 12 dump of the system kernel's memory needs to be taken (for example, when 13 the system panics). The system kernel's memory image is preserved across 14 the reboot and is accessible to the dump-capture kernel. 15 16 You can use common commands, such as cp and scp, to copy the 17 memory image to a dump file on the local disk, or across the network to 18 a remote system. 19 20 Kdump and kexec are currently supported on the x86, x86_64, ppc64, ia64, 21 and s390x architectures. 22 23 When the system kernel boots, it reserves a small section of memory for 24 the dump-capture kernel. This ensures that ongoing Direct Memory Access 25 (DMA) from the system kernel does not corrupt the dump-capture kernel. 26 The kexec -p command loads the dump-capture kernel into this reserved 27 memory. 28 29 On x86 machines, the first 640 KB of physical memory is needed to boot, 30 regardless of where the kernel loads. Therefore, kexec backs up this 31 region just before rebooting into the dump-capture kernel. 32 33 Similarly on PPC64 machines first 32KB of physical memory is needed for 34 booting regardless of where the kernel is loaded and to support 64K page 35 size kexec backs up the first 64KB memory. 36 37 For s390x, when kdump is triggered, the crashkernel region is exchanged 38 with the region [0, crashkernel region size] and then the kdump kernel 39 runs in [0, crashkernel region size]. Therefore no relocatable kernel is 40 needed for s390x. 41 42 All of the necessary information about the system kernel's core image is 43 encoded in the ELF format, and stored in a reserved area of memory 44 before a crash. The physical address of the start of the ELF header is 45 passed to the dump-capture kernel through the elfcorehdr= boot 46 parameter. Optionally the size of the ELF header can also be passed 47 when using the elfcorehdr=[size[KMG]@]offset[KMG] syntax. 48 49 50 With the dump-capture kernel, you can access the memory image, or "old 51 memory," in two ways: 52 53 - Through a /dev/oldmem device interface. A capture utility can read the 54 device file and write out the memory in raw format. This is a raw dump 55 of memory. Analysis and capture tools must be intelligent enough to 56 determine where to look for the right information. 57 58 - Through /proc/vmcore. This exports the dump as an ELF-format file that 59 you can write out using file copy commands such as cp or scp. Further, 60 you can use analysis tools such as the GNU Debugger (GDB) and the Crash 61 tool to debug the dump file. This method ensures that the dump pages are 62 correctly ordered. 63 64 65 Setup and Installation 66 ====================== 67 68 Install kexec-tools 69 ------------------- 70 71 1) Login as the root user. 72 73 2) Download the kexec-tools user-space package from the following URL: 74 75 http://kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/kexec/kexec-tools.tar.gz 76 77 This is a symlink to the latest version. 78 79 The latest kexec-tools git tree is available at: 80 81 git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/utils/kernel/kexec/kexec-tools.git 82 and 83 http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/utils/kernel/kexec/kexec-tools.git 84 85 There is also a gitweb interface available at 86 http://www.kernel.org/git/?p=utils/kernel/kexec/kexec-tools.git 87 88 More information about kexec-tools can be found at 89 http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/kexec/README.html 90 91 3) Unpack the tarball with the tar command, as follows: 92 93 tar xvpzf kexec-tools.tar.gz 94 95 4) Change to the kexec-tools directory, as follows: 96 97 cd kexec-tools-VERSION 98 99 5) Configure the package, as follows: 100 101 ./configure 102 103 6) Compile the package, as follows: 104 105 make 106 107 7) Install the package, as follows: 108 109 make install 110 111 112 Build the system and dump-capture kernels 113 ----------------------------------------- 114 There are two possible methods of using Kdump. 115 116 1) Build a separate custom dump-capture kernel for capturing the 117 kernel core dump. 118 119 2) Or use the system kernel binary itself as dump-capture kernel and there is 120 no need to build a separate dump-capture kernel. This is possible 121 only with the architectures which support a relocatable kernel. As 122 of today, i386, x86_64, ppc64 and ia64 architectures support relocatable 123 kernel. 124 125 Building a relocatable kernel is advantageous from the point of view that 126 one does not have to build a second kernel for capturing the dump. But 127 at the same time one might want to build a custom dump capture kernel 128 suitable to his needs. 129 130 Following are the configuration setting required for system and 131 dump-capture kernels for enabling kdump support. 132 133 System kernel config options 134 ---------------------------- 135 136 1) Enable "kexec system call" in "Processor type and features." 137 138 CONFIG_KEXEC=y 139 140 2) Enable "sysfs file system support" in "Filesystem" -> "Pseudo 141 filesystems." This is usually enabled by default. 142 143 CONFIG_SYSFS=y 144 145 Note that "sysfs file system support" might not appear in the "Pseudo 146 filesystems" menu if "Configure standard kernel features (for small 147 systems)" is not enabled in "General Setup." In this case, check the 148 .config file itself to ensure that sysfs is turned on, as follows: 149 150 grep 'CONFIG_SYSFS' .config 151 152 3) Enable "Compile the kernel with debug info" in "Kernel hacking." 153 154 CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=Y 155 156 This causes the kernel to be built with debug symbols. The dump 157 analysis tools require a vmlinux with debug symbols in order to read 158 and analyze a dump file. 159 160 Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Independent) 161 ----------------------------------------------------- 162 163 1) Enable "kernel crash dumps" support under "Processor type and 164 features": 165 166 CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP=y 167 168 2) Enable "/proc/vmcore support" under "Filesystems" -> "Pseudo filesystems". 169 170 CONFIG_PROC_VMCORE=y 171 (CONFIG_PROC_VMCORE is set by default when CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP is selected.) 172 173 Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Dependent, i386 and x86_64) 174 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 175 176 1) On i386, enable high memory support under "Processor type and 177 features": 178 179 CONFIG_HIGHMEM64G=y 180 or 181 CONFIG_HIGHMEM4G 182 183 2) On i386 and x86_64, disable symmetric multi-processing support 184 under "Processor type and features": 185 186 CONFIG_SMP=n 187 188 (If CONFIG_SMP=y, then specify maxcpus=1 on the kernel command line 189 when loading the dump-capture kernel, see section "Load the Dump-capture 190 Kernel".) 191 192 3) If one wants to build and use a relocatable kernel, 193 Enable "Build a relocatable kernel" support under "Processor type and 194 features" 195 196 CONFIG_RELOCATABLE=y 197 198 4) Use a suitable value for "Physical address where the kernel is 199 loaded" (under "Processor type and features"). This only appears when 200 "kernel crash dumps" is enabled. A suitable value depends upon 201 whether kernel is relocatable or not. 202 203 If you are using a relocatable kernel use CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START=0x100000 204 This will compile the kernel for physical address 1MB, but given the fact 205 kernel is relocatable, it can be run from any physical address hence 206 kexec boot loader will load it in memory region reserved for dump-capture 207 kernel. 208 209 Otherwise it should be the start of memory region reserved for 210 second kernel using boot parameter "crashkernel=Y@X". Here X is 211 start of memory region reserved for dump-capture kernel. 212 Generally X is 16MB (0x1000000). So you can set 213 CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START=0x1000000 214 215 5) Make and install the kernel and its modules. DO NOT add this kernel 216 to the boot loader configuration files. 217 218 Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Dependent, ppc64) 219 ---------------------------------------------------------- 220 221 1) Enable "Build a kdump crash kernel" support under "Kernel" options: 222 223 CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP=y 224 225 2) Enable "Build a relocatable kernel" support 226 227 CONFIG_RELOCATABLE=y 228 229 Make and install the kernel and its modules. 230 231 Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Dependent, ia64) 232 ---------------------------------------------------------- 233 234 - No specific options are required to create a dump-capture kernel 235 for ia64, other than those specified in the arch independent section 236 above. This means that it is possible to use the system kernel 237 as a dump-capture kernel if desired. 238 239 The crashkernel region can be automatically placed by the system 240 kernel at run time. This is done by specifying the base address as 0, 241 or omitting it all together. 242 243 crashkernel=256M@0 244 or 245 crashkernel=256M 246 247 If the start address is specified, note that the start address of the 248 kernel will be aligned to 64Mb, so if the start address is not then 249 any space below the alignment point will be wasted. 250 251 252 Extended crashkernel syntax 253 =========================== 254 255 While the "crashkernel=size[@offset]" syntax is sufficient for most 256 configurations, sometimes it's handy to have the reserved memory dependent 257 on the value of System RAM -- that's mostly for distributors that pre-setup 258 the kernel command line to avoid a unbootable system after some memory has 259 been removed from the machine. 260 261 The syntax is: 262 263 crashkernel=<range1>:<size1>[,<range2>:<size2>,...][@offset] 264 range=start-[end] 265 266 'start' is inclusive and 'end' is exclusive. 267 268 For example: 269 270 crashkernel=512M-2G:64M,2G-:128M 271 272 This would mean: 273 274 1) if the RAM is smaller than 512M, then don't reserve anything 275 (this is the "rescue" case) 276 2) if the RAM size is between 512M and 2G (exclusive), then reserve 64M 277 3) if the RAM size is larger than 2G, then reserve 128M 278 279 280 281 Boot into System Kernel 282 ======================= 283 284 1) Update the boot loader (such as grub, yaboot, or lilo) configuration 285 files as necessary. 286 287 2) Boot the system kernel with the boot parameter "crashkernel=Y@X", 288 where Y specifies how much memory to reserve for the dump-capture kernel 289 and X specifies the beginning of this reserved memory. For example, 290 "crashkernel=64M@16M" tells the system kernel to reserve 64 MB of memory 291 starting at physical address 0x01000000 (16MB) for the dump-capture kernel. 292 293 On x86 and x86_64, use "crashkernel=64M@16M". 294 295 On ppc64, use "crashkernel=128M@32M". 296 297 On ia64, 256M@256M is a generous value that typically works. 298 The region may be automatically placed on ia64, see the 299 dump-capture kernel config option notes above. 300 301 On s390x, typically use "crashkernel=xxM". The value of xx is dependent 302 on the memory consumption of the kdump system. In general this is not 303 dependent on the memory size of the production system. 304 305 Load the Dump-capture Kernel 306 ============================ 307 308 After booting to the system kernel, dump-capture kernel needs to be 309 loaded. 310 311 Based on the architecture and type of image (relocatable or not), one 312 can choose to load the uncompressed vmlinux or compressed bzImage/vmlinuz 313 of dump-capture kernel. Following is the summary. 314 315 For i386 and x86_64: 316 - Use vmlinux if kernel is not relocatable. 317 - Use bzImage/vmlinuz if kernel is relocatable. 318 For ppc64: 319 - Use vmlinux 320 For ia64: 321 - Use vmlinux or vmlinuz.gz 322 For s390x: 323 - Use image or bzImage 324 325 326 If you are using a uncompressed vmlinux image then use following command 327 to load dump-capture kernel. 328 329 kexec -p <dump-capture-kernel-vmlinux-image> \ 330 --initrd=<initrd-for-dump-capture-kernel> --args-linux \ 331 --append="root=<root-dev> <arch-specific-options>" 332 333 If you are using a compressed bzImage/vmlinuz, then use following command 334 to load dump-capture kernel. 335 336 kexec -p <dump-capture-kernel-bzImage> \ 337 --initrd=<initrd-for-dump-capture-kernel> \ 338 --append="root=<root-dev> <arch-specific-options>" 339 340 Please note, that --args-linux does not need to be specified for ia64. 341 It is planned to make this a no-op on that architecture, but for now 342 it should be omitted 343 344 Following are the arch specific command line options to be used while 345 loading dump-capture kernel. 346 347 For i386, x86_64 and ia64: 348 "1 irqpoll maxcpus=1 reset_devices" 349 350 For ppc64: 351 "1 maxcpus=1 noirqdistrib reset_devices" 352 353 For s390x: 354 "1 maxcpus=1 cgroup_disable=memory" 355 356 Notes on loading the dump-capture kernel: 357 358 * By default, the ELF headers are stored in ELF64 format to support 359 systems with more than 4GB memory. On i386, kexec automatically checks if 360 the physical RAM size exceeds the 4 GB limit and if not, uses ELF32. 361 So, on non-PAE systems, ELF32 is always used. 362 363 The --elf32-core-headers option can be used to force the generation of ELF32 364 headers. This is necessary because GDB currently cannot open vmcore files 365 with ELF64 headers on 32-bit systems. 366 367 * The "irqpoll" boot parameter reduces driver initialization failures 368 due to shared interrupts in the dump-capture kernel. 369 370 * You must specify <root-dev> in the format corresponding to the root 371 device name in the output of mount command. 372 373 * Boot parameter "1" boots the dump-capture kernel into single-user 374 mode without networking. If you want networking, use "3". 375 376 * We generally don' have to bring up a SMP kernel just to capture the 377 dump. Hence generally it is useful either to build a UP dump-capture 378 kernel or specify maxcpus=1 option while loading dump-capture kernel. 379 380 * For s390x there are two kdump modes: If a ELF header is specified with 381 the elfcorehdr= kernel parameter, it is used by the kdump kernel as it 382 is done on all other architectures. If no elfcorehdr= kernel parameter is 383 specified, the s390x kdump kernel dynamically creates the header. The 384 second mode has the advantage that for CPU and memory hotplug, kdump has 385 not to be reloaded with kexec_load(). 386 387 * For s390x systems with many attached devices the "cio_ignore" kernel 388 parameter should be used for the kdump kernel in order to prevent allocation 389 of kernel memory for devices that are not relevant for kdump. The same 390 applies to systems that use SCSI/FCP devices. In that case the 391 "allow_lun_scan" zfcp module parameter should be set to zero before 392 setting FCP devices online. 393 394 Kernel Panic 395 ============ 396 397 After successfully loading the dump-capture kernel as previously 398 described, the system will reboot into the dump-capture kernel if a 399 system crash is triggered. Trigger points are located in panic(), 400 die(), die_nmi() and in the sysrq handler (ALT-SysRq-c). 401 402 The following conditions will execute a crash trigger point: 403 404 If a hard lockup is detected and "NMI watchdog" is configured, the system 405 will boot into the dump-capture kernel ( die_nmi() ). 406 407 If die() is called, and it happens to be a thread with pid 0 or 1, or die() 408 is called inside interrupt context or die() is called and panic_on_oops is set, 409 the system will boot into the dump-capture kernel. 410 411 On powerpc systems when a soft-reset is generated, die() is called by all cpus 412 and the system will boot into the dump-capture kernel. 413 414 For testing purposes, you can trigger a crash by using "ALT-SysRq-c", 415 "echo c > /proc/sysrq-trigger" or write a module to force the panic. 416 417 Write Out the Dump File 418 ======================= 419 420 After the dump-capture kernel is booted, write out the dump file with 421 the following command: 422 423 cp /proc/vmcore <dump-file> 424 425 You can also access dumped memory as a /dev/oldmem device for a linear 426 and raw view. To create the device, use the following command: 427 428 mknod /dev/oldmem c 1 12 429 430 Use the dd command with suitable options for count, bs, and skip to 431 access specific portions of the dump. 432 433 To see the entire memory, use the following command: 434 435 dd if=/dev/oldmem of=oldmem.001 436 437 438 Analysis 439 ======== 440 441 Before analyzing the dump image, you should reboot into a stable kernel. 442 443 You can do limited analysis using GDB on the dump file copied out of 444 /proc/vmcore. Use the debug vmlinux built with -g and run the following 445 command: 446 447 gdb vmlinux <dump-file> 448 449 Stack trace for the task on processor 0, register display, and memory 450 display work fine. 451 452 Note: GDB cannot analyze core files generated in ELF64 format for x86. 453 On systems with a maximum of 4GB of memory, you can generate 454 ELF32-format headers using the --elf32-core-headers kernel option on the 455 dump kernel. 456 457 You can also use the Crash utility to analyze dump files in Kdump 458 format. Crash is available on Dave Anderson's site at the following URL: 459 460 http://people.redhat.com/~anderson/ 461 462 463 To Do 464 ===== 465 466 1) Provide relocatable kernels for all architectures to help in maintaining 467 multiple kernels for crash_dump, and the same kernel as the system kernel 468 can be used to capture the dump.
|Proprietary Software||Open Source Alternative|
Mac OS X
Centos (Red Hat Linux without Red Hat’s logos and support.)
K12LTSP K12 Linux Terminal Server Project
There are too many others to list, go to Linux Online! for more distros!
|Office Productivity Software / Suites|
|Microsoft Office||OpenOffice (cross platform)
LibreOffice (cross platform)
KOffice – Linux
|BlueGriffon (cross platform)|
|Digital Image / Photo Editing / Raster Image Editing Software|
|Adobe Photoshop||GIMP (cross platform)|
|Image Viewers with RAW Capability|
|Photo Mechanic (Win and Mac OSX)||Xee (Mac OSX only)|
|Vector Drawing Programs|
|Inkscape (cross platform)|
(Computer Aided Drawing)
|AutoCAD||QCad (Linux/UNIX * Mac OS X)|
|Blender (cross platform)
(to capture what you are doing on your computer and save as a video file)
|CamStudio (for Windows only)|
|Scribus (cross platform)|
|Adobe Acrobat||PDF Creator (Windows only)OpenOffice
* This capability is built into Mac OS X via the print function.
|Notepad||jEdit (cross platform)
Notepad++ (for Windows only)
Syn (for Windows only)
Smultron (for Mac OS X only)
|Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Services)||Apache (cross platform)|
|Microsoft Internet Explorer
|Mozilla Firefox (cross platform)
|Thunderbird (cross platform)
(File Transfer Protocol)
|Ipswitch WS_FTP Pro
|Filezilla – FTP and SFTP (cross platform)
Cyberduck – FTP and SFTP (for Mac OS X only)
(SSH Secure File Transfer)
|Filezilla – FTP and SFTP (cross platform)
Cyberduck – FTP and SFTP (for Mac OS X only)
WinSCP – SFTP and SCP client for Windows
|PuTTY – SFTP and Telnet client for Windows|
|Apple Remote Desktop (ARD)||TightVNC – VNC server and client for Windows, Linux, and Unix
Chicken of the VNC – VNC client for Mac OS X
OSXvnc – VNC server for Mac OS X
|Hard Disk Utilities / Partitioning Tools|
|Norton PartitionMagic||GParted & GParted LiveCD (Gnome Partition Editor) – (cross platform)|
ClamWin – (for Windows only)
ClamXav – (for Mac OS X only)
|Keyboarding / Typing Software|
|Tux Typing 2|
|Edutainment / Educational Software|
|The KDE Edutainment Project
FREEDUC – resource for FOSS educational software
A List of Open Source Software for Education
Gcompris – educational softare for kids ages 2 to 10
Childsplay – various games for ages 1-9
KStars – a simualted planetarium (astronomy)
Kalzium – periodic table
KWord Quiz – flash cards
KTouch – teaches typing
Tux Paint – vector and raster image editing program for young children
KTurtle – Logo programming for young children
|Geometer’s Sketchpad or Cabri||GeoGebra – joins geometry, algebra and calculus
Dr. Geo – interactive geometry software
TuxMath – math game for kids
|Rosegarden – similar to Cubase
Solfege – ear training
|Sound Editing Programs|
|Sound Forge||Audacity (cross platform)|
|Brainstorming, Mind Mapping, Flowcharting, Planning|
View Your Mind
|Accounting / Personal Finance|
Grisbi – (cross platform)
|Course Management Systems (CMS) and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)|
|Click here for a full list of non-open source CMS/VLEs
|Click here for a full list of Open Source CMS/VLEs
Also click here
Moodle – used in 74 countries in 34 diferent languages!
MyClassroom – in use by several middle schools and high schools in the US and around the world!
CourseWork – used by Stanford University
COSE (Creation of Study Environments)
Claroline – used in 62 countries and 28 languages!
|Student Information Systems (SIS)|
Open Admin for Schools
|Virtual PC for Mac||QEMU
Q – cocoa port of QEMU for Mac OS X
|Virtual PC for Windows
|VirtualBox (cross platform)
User & group administration
Configuring Linux Networking
Installing and configuring Linux Operating system
Basic Operating System Concepts
Basic experience in Shell Scripts.
Knowledge on apache server
Knowledge on FTP,SSH,SSL,Telnet & xinetd
Knowledge about File system hierarchy
Basic Network Troubleshooting
Installing & configuring Linux Software
Monitoring Server Performance
Configuring Linux Software RAID
Expanding Linux Partitions with LVM
Network Based Linux Installation like NFS, HTTP & FTP
In-depth knowledge on Linux operating system
Experience in shell and Perl scripting
Kernel compilation and fine tuning.
Configuring Linux Firewalls Using iptables
Configuring & Managing Disk Usage With Quotas
Knowledge on TCP/IP
File system Management
Expertise in managing and configuring various services like DNS, NIS, NFS, APACHE, FTP, DHCP & SAMBA
Knowledge on High Availability and Clustering.
High Level of Troubleshooting skill
3. Linux file system, each file to identify with the i node.
4. All the disk block consists of four parts, namely, guide blocks, special blocks, i node table blocks and blocks of data storage
5. Links divided into: hard links and symbolic links.
6. Super-block contains the i node table and the free block table and other important file system information.
7. A certain file permissions: d-rw–r – -r -, with values expressed as to the authority, then the octal number: 644, the file attribute is a directory.
8. Foreground the process of starting to use Ctrl + c to terminate. 8. Foreground the process of starting to use Ctrl + c to terminate.
9. Static routing settings, if the network topology change is required by the system administrator to modify the routing settings.
10. The important task of network management: control and monitoring.
11. Install Linux system hard disk partition, there must be two kinds of partition types: file system partition and swap partition.
13. Prepared by Shell to run the script file must be given before the execute permission.
14. System management tasks is to be able to achieve in a distributed environment, programs and data security protection, backup, restore and update.
15. The system swap partition as a virtual memory system, a regional.
16. Kernel is divided into process management systems, memory management system, I / O management system and document management systems, four sub-systems.
17. Kernel configuration is the system administrator to change the system configuration hardware to conduct a major operation.
18. In the installation of Linux systems, use the netconfig program to configure the network, the installation program prompts the user for a step by step, type the host name, domain names, domain name server, IP address, gateway address and subnet mask and other necessary information.
19. That uniquely identifies each user is the user ID and user name.
20. RIP protocol is the most common is an internal agreement, commonly known as dynamic routing information protocol. Agreement is the most common is an internal agreement, commonly known as dynamic routing information protocol.
21. In the Linux system, all the contents are represented as files, organize files in various ways is called the file system.
22. DHCP dynamic IP address assignment can be achieved. 22. DHCP dynamic IP address assignment can be achieved.
23. System network management object is a server administrator, user and server processes and system resources.
24. Network management usually monitoring, transmission and management of three parts, of which management component of the entire network management center.
25. When you want to delete this system without access to the device driver must compile the kernel, when the kernel does not support the device driver on the system, you must upgrade to the kernel.
26 Ping command to test the network, the local systems are able to get to a remote host, so I often used to test network connectivity.
27. Vi editor has two operating modes: command mode and input mode.
28. Can use ls-al command to see the file permissions, the permissions of each file are in 10 bits and is divided into four sections, which accounted for a paragraph that file type, accounting for 3 second paragraph that the owner of the file permissions for the file.
29. The distinction between process and procedure lies in its dynamic nature, dynamic creation and termination of the process from creation to the termination of the basic state can have: Run state, ready state and wait state (blocked state).
30. DNS is actually distributed in the internet database of information on the host, its role is to achieve the IP address and host name conversion.
31. Apache is to achieve WWW server function of the application, known as the “Browse web server” in the server-side web services to provide users here is the apache application.
32. In the Linux system can have two types of backup: a backup system backup and user. Where the former refers to the operating system backup, which refers to applications and user files backed up. Where the former refers to the operating system backup, which refers to applications and user files backed up.
33. CD-ROM standard file system type is iso9660.
34. When the lilo.conf configuration has been completed, bring it into force, should run the command and parameters is lilo.
35. In using the ls command, use the octal display non-printing characters should be used to parameter-b.
36. Linux that supports Windows 9.x/2000 long file name file system type is vfat.
37. Set limits on the use of disk space a user command is quota.
38 In the Linux system, used to store system configuration files and subdirectories needed directory is /etc.
39. Hard link can only be built on the file link. Symbolic links across different file systems can be created. Symbolic links across different file systems can be created.
40. Socket file attribute bit is s.
41. The end of the background process command is kill.
42. There are two ways to run the process, that is independently run and use the parent process to run.
43. Links are divided into hard links and symbolic links.
44. In the super-user Linux system, under the display of all running processes, you should use the command and parameters are ps-aux.
45. Pipeline file attribute bit is p.
46. Will be the standard output of the previous command, after a command as standard input, called pipes.
47. For the implementation of the right of the specified script command and parameters are chmod a + x filename.
48. Remote login commands are telnet.
49. To send 10 packets packets abc.tuu.edu.cn test connectivity with the host, you should use the commands and parameters are: ping abc.tuu.edu.cn-c 10.
50. DNS server process named named, when it starts to automatically load / etc directory of the named.conf file partition defined in the DNS database file.
51. Apache server process configuration file is httpd.conf.
52. In the Linux system, the compressed files generated after the suffix. Gz file command is gzip.
53. Edit a file using vi, it will be put into the file test.txt file, should be the command mode, type: w test.txt.
54 can be displayed on standard output the whole year calendar orders and parameters are cal-y.
55. In shell programming, the use of square brackets indicate that the rules of test conditions are: there must be space on both sides of the square brackets.
56. Check the installed file system / dev/had5 is normal, if the check is wrong, then the auto-repair, the command and parameters are fsck-a / dev/had5.
57. Windows9.x environment shared Unix / Linux users in the directory tool is a Samba server.
58. System Administrator is responsible for system resource management, system performance management, device management, security management and system performance monitoring.
59 In the Linux system to test DNS server is able to correctly resolve the domain name of the client-side command, use the command nslookup.
60. In the Linux system, the second IDE channel hard disk (slave) was identified as hdb.
61. When the system administrator needs to upgrade the kernel version and change the system hardware configuration, should be re-compile the kernel.
62. If you just want to modify the system IP address, should be amended / etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 configuration file.
63. When the LAN there are no conditions for the establishment DNS server, but want to LAN users can use the computer name to visit each other, we should configure / etc / hosts file.
64. In the vi editor environment, using the Esc key to model.
65. Slackware Linux 9.0 typically use ext3 file system, the system’s total disk block consists of four parts.
66. To / home/stud1/naresh directory do archive compression, the compressed generated naresh.tar.gz file, and save this file to the / home directory, to achieve this task tar command format tar zcvf /home/naresh.tar.gz /home/stud1/naresh.
67. Pipeline from the former standard output as a command after a command standard input.
68. In the use of manual methods to configure the network, you can modify / etc / HOSTNAME file to change the host name, to configure the computer’s domain name resolution client, the need to configure / etc / resolv.conf file.
69. Startup process is to manually start and scheduling are two ways to start, where to start commonly used scheduling command at, batch, and crontab.
70. Test.bns.com.cn domain name is bns.com.cn, if you want to configure a domain name server should be defined in the named.conf file, DNS database, working directory.
71. Sendmail e-mail system uses two main protocols are: SMTP and POP, the former is used to send the message, which is used for receiving mail.
72. DHCP is short for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, its role is: To network host allocation of IP addresses.
73. At present the use of a proxy server software package there are a variety of teaching materials used in the squid.
74. Rm command to delete files or directories, the main difference is whether to use recursive switch-r or-R.
75. Mv command can move files and directories, you can also rename files and directories.
76. Routing Protocol (RIP) of the number of hops that must pass before the destination gateway number, RIP acceptable to jump the longest distance is 15.
77. Ping command is used to test network connectivity, ping command through the ICMP protocol (internet control message protocol) to achieve.
78. Nfs protocol used to implement Unix (/ linux) file system shared between hosts.
79. In the Linux operating system, devices are accessed through special files.
80. Shell is not only the user command interpreter, it is also a powerful programming language. Bash is the Linux default shell. bash is the Linux default shell.
81. Use “;”; symbol redirects the contents of the output appended to the back of the original.
82. To increase a user’s command is: adduser or useradd.
83 for string search using grep command.
84. Use * for each match the number of characters.
85. / Sbin directory is used to store the system administrator using the management procedure