How to mack Bootable USB drive

Create Windows Bootable USB

1 – WinToFlash :

As you can see from the above screenshot, it’s the easiest software you can use to create a bootable windows. It can create a bootable version of windows xp/2003 , winPE XP/2003 , Windows vista/2008/7/8 setup to USB drive, and some more…. .

2 – Windows 7 USB/DVD download tool :

Windows 7 USB/DVD download tool is created by Microsoft itself to make it easier to create a bootable USB drive or burn windows 7 Iso file to a DVD.

3 – A Bootable USB :

A Bootable USB is a little app made to let you install windows vista/2008/7  from a USB drive.

4 – A Bootable USB ( By ) :

Seems to have the same name as the above one.But it’s got a few more options and it works for x64 versions of windows as well.

5 – Setup from USB :

A simple and easy to use app to make a bootable windows vista/7 USB drive. Required .NetFramework 4.

6 – OStoGO :

A small app made to put your windows vista/7 DVD into a USB drive.

7 – RMPrepUSB :

An advanced tool to create bootable windows USB. Should be used with care.

8 –  WinSetupFromUSB :

A good app that should be used with care that can let you create a bootable windows or Linux.Allows you to test in QEMU

9-  FlashBoot :

A nice software that can put Windows XP/Vista/7 on a USB flash drive.Worth about $38 USD.

Create MultiBootable USB

10 – YUMI – (Your Universal Multiboot Installer) :

YUMI can be used to create a MultiBootable USB drive with multiple Operating Systems, Antivirus Utilities, Recovery tools…… and more. Uses Syslinux. One other really nice feature with it is that it can download the ISO file for you before using it on USB drive.

11 – XBoot :

XBoot is a nice utility that can create Multiboot USB/ISO for Linux, Live CDs, Antivirus Utilities,….. and more. My favorite part about it is that it can let you test the USB inside windows.

12- SARDU :

A really nice piece of software that can create a Multibootable ISO and USB drive. That can contain some antivirus tools, utilities, live versions of Linux ad windows installers. All you need to do is to put the ISO files in the ISO folder and enjoy your powerful USB disk.

Create Linux and Others Bootable USB

13 –  Universal USB Installer :

One really nice app that is quite the same as YUMI , except that it doesn’t support MultiBoot, however, it supports a large variety of Linux distros, Antivirus utilities, Windows vista/7, Hiren’s Boot CD,….. and a lot more.Can also download the ISO for you.

14 – LiveUSB Install :

A small utility that you can use to create a bootable Linux ( with many distros supported, in addition to some Antivirus rescue disks and some more tools). Got some other options including writing .img files to a USB disk.

15 – UNetbootin :

A nice app available for Windows, Linux, Mac OS X. Can also download the ISO for you. Supports many distros, Antivirus utilities,….. and some more.Supports making bootable USB no matter what distro ( as long as the ISO is bootable ).Visit Homepage for more details.

16 – MultiSystem ( Linux ) :

A Linux-Only app that you can use to create a bootable linux USB drive.Check the Home page for more details.

17 – Fedora LiveUSB Creator :

A little app that will just let you put your Fedora ISO on your USB drive.

18 – CD 2 USB :

A little Command line utility that can create a live USB of Ubuntu. Doesn’t format the USB drive and installs the bootloader on it.

19 – ISO to USB :

Simply, create a bootable USB from a Bootable ISO.

20 – ISO2Disc :

A tiny app that can burn the ISO file to a CD/DVD or a USB flash Drive.



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Download Torrents with Download Manager using ZBIGZ

Previously I had mentioned How To Download Torrent Files using IDM in this post. That was using torcache. Here is another similar method to download  using Torrent Files using IDM for some really quick download Speed. Follow the Steps below.

  • First get the Torrent file of the Game or the Software you want to download. It is of the format [.torrent] like in the image below.
  • Go to Here upload the .torrent file you had downloaded earlier or paste the link to that file and Click on the Go button.
  • Now all you need to do it to wait till the Torrent file is cached. The Problem with caching is that sometime it might take more time. But more often it happens within a few minutes.

  • Click on the Download Button and When you are asked to Choose an Account, Choose a Free Account. And then Downloading will start.

Thats it. Do let us know whether you had to wait a lot to download using this method or else you can always go back to this post and use this method.

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IDM Full Version Without Patching And Cracking

Make IDM ( Internet Download Manager ) full version through HOSTS File Trick.
The procedure is really easy to follow and you can make this happen just in few seconds.


Follow below steps .:

1. Make sure you have installed the latest version of IDM
from the official creators website.

2. Now after you have downloaded and installed the latest version
just close the IDM and now go to start menu and make a search for Notepad.

3. Now right click on Notepad and than Run It As Administrator.

4. Now navigate to .:

C: > Windows > System 32 > Drivers > etc. > Hosts.

5. When you are in the etc. folder you might not see any files their
as you have click on show all files on the right hand side below.

6. Now open the Hosts file With Notepad and paste all the below lines ,
Like I have Pasted In Below Image.

7. So now as you can see in the above image how
I have pasted all the lines @ the end of the Hosts file,
you have to do same as above, now hit save.

8. Now when you have saved the HOSTS File
you can simply enter any serials from below in your IDM Registration page

Internet Download Manager Serial Numbers .:










9. Now enjoy your full version IDM without purchasing or
patching it totally genuine and totally legal.

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configure Kdump in centos (to recover data)

1	================================================================
2	Documentation for Kdump - The kexec-based Crash Dumping Solution
3	================================================================
5	This document includes overview, setup and installation, and analysis
6	information.
8	Overview
9	========
11	Kdump uses kexec to quickly boot to a dump-capture kernel whenever a
12	dump of the system kernel's memory needs to be taken (for example, when
13	the system panics). The system kernel's memory image is preserved across
14	the reboot and is accessible to the dump-capture kernel.
16	You can use common commands, such as cp and scp, to copy the
17	memory image to a dump file on the local disk, or across the network to
18	a remote system.
20	Kdump and kexec are currently supported on the x86, x86_64, ppc64, ia64,
21	and s390x architectures.
23	When the system kernel boots, it reserves a small section of memory for
24	the dump-capture kernel. This ensures that ongoing Direct Memory Access
25	(DMA) from the system kernel does not corrupt the dump-capture kernel.
26	The kexec -p command loads the dump-capture kernel into this reserved
27	memory.
29	On x86 machines, the first 640 KB of physical memory is needed to boot,
30	regardless of where the kernel loads. Therefore, kexec backs up this
31	region just before rebooting into the dump-capture kernel.
33	Similarly on PPC64 machines first 32KB of physical memory is needed for
34	booting regardless of where the kernel is loaded and to support 64K page
35	size kexec backs up the first 64KB memory.
37	For s390x, when kdump is triggered, the crashkernel region is exchanged
38	with the region [0, crashkernel region size] and then the kdump kernel
39	runs in [0, crashkernel region size]. Therefore no relocatable kernel is
40	needed for s390x.
42	All of the necessary information about the system kernel's core image is
43	encoded in the ELF format, and stored in a reserved area of memory
44	before a crash. The physical address of the start of the ELF header is
45	passed to the dump-capture kernel through the elfcorehdr= boot
46	parameter. Optionally the size of the ELF header can also be passed
47	when using the elfcorehdr=[size[KMG]@]offset[KMG] syntax.
50	With the dump-capture kernel, you can access the memory image, or "old
51	memory," in two ways:
53	- Through a /dev/oldmem device interface. A capture utility can read the
54	  device file and write out the memory in raw format. This is a raw dump
55	  of memory. Analysis and capture tools must be intelligent enough to
56	  determine where to look for the right information.
58	- Through /proc/vmcore. This exports the dump as an ELF-format file that
59	  you can write out using file copy commands such as cp or scp. Further,
60	  you can use analysis tools such as the GNU Debugger (GDB) and the Crash
61	  tool to debug the dump file. This method ensures that the dump pages are
62	  correctly ordered.
65	Setup and Installation
66	======================
68	Install kexec-tools
69	-------------------
71	1) Login as the root user.
73	2) Download the kexec-tools user-space package from the following URL:
77	This is a symlink to the latest version.
79	The latest kexec-tools git tree is available at:
81	git://
82	and
85	There is also a gitweb interface available at
88	More information about kexec-tools can be found at
91	3) Unpack the tarball with the tar command, as follows:
93	   tar xvpzf kexec-tools.tar.gz
95	4) Change to the kexec-tools directory, as follows:
97	   cd kexec-tools-VERSION
99	5) Configure the package, as follows:
101	   ./configure
103	6) Compile the package, as follows:
105	   make
107	7) Install the package, as follows:
109	   make install
112	Build the system and dump-capture kernels
113	-----------------------------------------
114	There are two possible methods of using Kdump.
116	1) Build a separate custom dump-capture kernel for capturing the
117	   kernel core dump.
119	2) Or use the system kernel binary itself as dump-capture kernel and there is
120	   no need to build a separate dump-capture kernel. This is possible
121	   only with the architectures which support a relocatable kernel. As
122	   of today, i386, x86_64, ppc64 and ia64 architectures support relocatable
123	   kernel.
125	Building a relocatable kernel is advantageous from the point of view that
126	one does not have to build a second kernel for capturing the dump. But
127	at the same time one might want to build a custom dump capture kernel
128	suitable to his needs.
130	Following are the configuration setting required for system and
131	dump-capture kernels for enabling kdump support.
133	System kernel config options
134	----------------------------
136	1) Enable "kexec system call" in "Processor type and features."
140	2) Enable "sysfs file system support" in "Filesystem" -> "Pseudo
141	   filesystems." This is usually enabled by default.
145	   Note that "sysfs file system support" might not appear in the "Pseudo
146	   filesystems" menu if "Configure standard kernel features (for small
147	   systems)" is not enabled in "General Setup." In this case, check the
148	   .config file itself to ensure that sysfs is turned on, as follows:
150	   grep 'CONFIG_SYSFS' .config
152	3) Enable "Compile the kernel with debug info" in "Kernel hacking."
156	   This causes the kernel to be built with debug symbols. The dump
157	   analysis tools require a vmlinux with debug symbols in order to read
158	   and analyze a dump file.
160	Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Independent)
161	-----------------------------------------------------
163	1) Enable "kernel crash dumps" support under "Processor type and
164	   features":
168	2) Enable "/proc/vmcore support" under "Filesystems" -> "Pseudo filesystems".
171	   (CONFIG_PROC_VMCORE is set by default when CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP is selected.)
173	Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Dependent, i386 and x86_64)
174	--------------------------------------------------------------------
176	1) On i386, enable high memory support under "Processor type and
177	   features":
180	   or
183	2) On i386 and x86_64, disable symmetric multi-processing support
184	   under "Processor type and features":
186	   CONFIG_SMP=n
188	   (If CONFIG_SMP=y, then specify maxcpus=1 on the kernel command line
189	   when loading the dump-capture kernel, see section "Load the Dump-capture
190	   Kernel".)
192	3) If one wants to build and use a relocatable kernel,
193	   Enable "Build a relocatable kernel" support under "Processor type and
194	   features"
198	4) Use a suitable value for "Physical address where the kernel is
199	   loaded" (under "Processor type and features"). This only appears when
200	   "kernel crash dumps" is enabled. A suitable value depends upon
201	   whether kernel is relocatable or not.
203	   If you are using a relocatable kernel use CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START=0x100000
204	   This will compile the kernel for physical address 1MB, but given the fact
205	   kernel is relocatable, it can be run from any physical address hence
206	   kexec boot loader will load it in memory region reserved for dump-capture
207	   kernel.
209	   Otherwise it should be the start of memory region reserved for
210	   second kernel using boot parameter "crashkernel=Y@X". Here X is
211	   start of memory region reserved for dump-capture kernel.
212	   Generally X is 16MB (0x1000000). So you can set
213	   CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START=0x1000000
215	5) Make and install the kernel and its modules. DO NOT add this kernel
216	   to the boot loader configuration files.
218	Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Dependent, ppc64)
219	----------------------------------------------------------
221	1) Enable "Build a kdump crash kernel" support under "Kernel" options:
225	2)   Enable "Build a relocatable kernel" support
229	   Make and install the kernel and its modules.
231	Dump-capture kernel config options (Arch Dependent, ia64)
232	----------------------------------------------------------
234	- No specific options are required to create a dump-capture kernel
235	  for ia64, other than those specified in the arch independent section
236	  above. This means that it is possible to use the system kernel
237	  as a dump-capture kernel if desired.
239	  The crashkernel region can be automatically placed by the system
240	  kernel at run time. This is done by specifying the base address as 0,
241	  or omitting it all together.
243	  crashkernel=256M@0
244	  or
245	  crashkernel=256M
247	  If the start address is specified, note that the start address of the
248	  kernel will be aligned to 64Mb, so if the start address is not then
249	  any space below the alignment point will be wasted.
252	Extended crashkernel syntax
253	===========================
255	While the "crashkernel=size[@offset]" syntax is sufficient for most
256	configurations, sometimes it's handy to have the reserved memory dependent
257	on the value of System RAM -- that's mostly for distributors that pre-setup
258	the kernel command line to avoid a unbootable system after some memory has
259	been removed from the machine.
261	The syntax is:
263	    crashkernel=<range1>:<size1>[,<range2>:<size2>,...][@offset]
264	    range=start-[end]
266	    'start' is inclusive and 'end' is exclusive.
268	For example:
270	    crashkernel=512M-2G:64M,2G-:128M
272	This would mean:
274	    1) if the RAM is smaller than 512M, then don't reserve anything
275	       (this is the "rescue" case)
276	    2) if the RAM size is between 512M and 2G (exclusive), then reserve 64M
277	    3) if the RAM size is larger than 2G, then reserve 128M
281	Boot into System Kernel
282	=======================
284	1) Update the boot loader (such as grub, yaboot, or lilo) configuration
285	   files as necessary.
287	2) Boot the system kernel with the boot parameter "crashkernel=Y@X",
288	   where Y specifies how much memory to reserve for the dump-capture kernel
289	   and X specifies the beginning of this reserved memory. For example,
290	   "crashkernel=64M@16M" tells the system kernel to reserve 64 MB of memory
291	   starting at physical address 0x01000000 (16MB) for the dump-capture kernel.
293	   On x86 and x86_64, use "crashkernel=64M@16M".
295	   On ppc64, use "crashkernel=128M@32M".
297	   On ia64, 256M@256M is a generous value that typically works.
298	   The region may be automatically placed on ia64, see the
299	   dump-capture kernel config option notes above.
301	   On s390x, typically use "crashkernel=xxM". The value of xx is dependent
302	   on the memory consumption of the kdump system. In general this is not
303	   dependent on the memory size of the production system.
305	Load the Dump-capture Kernel
306	============================
308	After booting to the system kernel, dump-capture kernel needs to be
309	loaded.
311	Based on the architecture and type of image (relocatable or not), one
312	can choose to load the uncompressed vmlinux or compressed bzImage/vmlinuz
313	of dump-capture kernel. Following is the summary.
315	For i386 and x86_64:
316		- Use vmlinux if kernel is not relocatable.
317		- Use bzImage/vmlinuz if kernel is relocatable.
318	For ppc64:
319		- Use vmlinux
320	For ia64:
321		- Use vmlinux or vmlinuz.gz
322	For s390x:
323		- Use image or bzImage
326	If you are using a uncompressed vmlinux image then use following command
327	to load dump-capture kernel.
329	   kexec -p <dump-capture-kernel-vmlinux-image> \
330	   --initrd=<initrd-for-dump-capture-kernel> --args-linux \
331	   --append="root=<root-dev> <arch-specific-options>"
333	If you are using a compressed bzImage/vmlinuz, then use following command
334	to load dump-capture kernel.
336	   kexec -p <dump-capture-kernel-bzImage> \
337	   --initrd=<initrd-for-dump-capture-kernel> \
338	   --append="root=<root-dev> <arch-specific-options>"
340	Please note, that --args-linux does not need to be specified for ia64.
341	It is planned to make this a no-op on that architecture, but for now
342	it should be omitted
344	Following are the arch specific command line options to be used while
345	loading dump-capture kernel.
347	For i386, x86_64 and ia64:
348		"1 irqpoll maxcpus=1 reset_devices"
350	For ppc64:
351		"1 maxcpus=1 noirqdistrib reset_devices"
353	For s390x:
354		"1 maxcpus=1 cgroup_disable=memory"
356	Notes on loading the dump-capture kernel:
358	* By default, the ELF headers are stored in ELF64 format to support
359	  systems with more than 4GB memory. On i386, kexec automatically checks if
360	  the physical RAM size exceeds the 4 GB limit and if not, uses ELF32.
361	  So, on non-PAE systems, ELF32 is always used.
363	  The --elf32-core-headers option can be used to force the generation of ELF32
364	  headers. This is necessary because GDB currently cannot open vmcore files
365	  with ELF64 headers on 32-bit systems.
367	* The "irqpoll" boot parameter reduces driver initialization failures
368	  due to shared interrupts in the dump-capture kernel.
370	* You must specify <root-dev> in the format corresponding to the root
371	  device name in the output of mount command.
373	* Boot parameter "1" boots the dump-capture kernel into single-user
374	  mode without networking. If you want networking, use "3".
376	* We generally don' have to bring up a SMP kernel just to capture the
377	  dump. Hence generally it is useful either to build a UP dump-capture
378	  kernel or specify maxcpus=1 option while loading dump-capture kernel.
380	* For s390x there are two kdump modes: If a ELF header is specified with
381	  the elfcorehdr= kernel parameter, it is used by the kdump kernel as it
382	  is done on all other architectures. If no elfcorehdr= kernel parameter is
383	  specified, the s390x kdump kernel dynamically creates the header. The
384	  second mode has the advantage that for CPU and memory hotplug, kdump has
385	  not to be reloaded with kexec_load().
387	* For s390x systems with many attached devices the "cio_ignore" kernel
388	  parameter should be used for the kdump kernel in order to prevent allocation
389	  of kernel memory for devices that are not relevant for kdump. The same
390	  applies to systems that use SCSI/FCP devices. In that case the
391	  "allow_lun_scan" zfcp module parameter should be set to zero before
392	  setting FCP devices online.
394	Kernel Panic
395	============
397	After successfully loading the dump-capture kernel as previously
398	described, the system will reboot into the dump-capture kernel if a
399	system crash is triggered.  Trigger points are located in panic(),
400	die(), die_nmi() and in the sysrq handler (ALT-SysRq-c).
402	The following conditions will execute a crash trigger point:
404	If a hard lockup is detected and "NMI watchdog" is configured, the system
405	will boot into the dump-capture kernel ( die_nmi() ).
407	If die() is called, and it happens to be a thread with pid 0 or 1, or die()
408	is called inside interrupt context or die() is called and panic_on_oops is set,
409	the system will boot into the dump-capture kernel.
411	On powerpc systems when a soft-reset is generated, die() is called by all cpus
412	and the system will boot into the dump-capture kernel.
414	For testing purposes, you can trigger a crash by using "ALT-SysRq-c",
415	"echo c > /proc/sysrq-trigger" or write a module to force the panic.
417	Write Out the Dump File
418	=======================
420	After the dump-capture kernel is booted, write out the dump file with
421	the following command:
423	   cp /proc/vmcore <dump-file>
425	You can also access dumped memory as a /dev/oldmem device for a linear
426	and raw view. To create the device, use the following command:
428	    mknod /dev/oldmem c 1 12
430	Use the dd command with suitable options for count, bs, and skip to
431	access specific portions of the dump.
433	To see the entire memory, use the following command:
435	   dd if=/dev/oldmem of=oldmem.001
438	Analysis
439	========
441	Before analyzing the dump image, you should reboot into a stable kernel.
443	You can do limited analysis using GDB on the dump file copied out of
444	/proc/vmcore. Use the debug vmlinux built with -g and run the following
445	command:
447	   gdb vmlinux <dump-file>
449	Stack trace for the task on processor 0, register display, and memory
450	display work fine.
452	Note: GDB cannot analyze core files generated in ELF64 format for x86.
453	On systems with a maximum of 4GB of memory, you can generate
454	ELF32-format headers using the --elf32-core-headers kernel option on the
455	dump kernel.
457	You can also use the Crash utility to analyze dump files in Kdump
458	format. Crash is available on Dave Anderson's site at the following URL:
463	To Do
464	=====
466	1) Provide relocatable kernels for all architectures to help in maintaining
467	   multiple kernels for crash_dump, and the same kernel as the system kernel
468	   can be used to capture the dump.

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Open Source Software for linux

Proprietary Software Open Source Alternative
Operating Systems
Microsoft Windows
Mac OS X
Ubuntu Linux
Fedora Linux
Centos (Red Hat Linux without Red Hat’s logos and support.)
Debian Linux
Mandriva Linux
K12LTSP K12 Linux Terminal Server Project
There are too many others to list, go to Linux Online! for more distros!
Office Productivity Software / Suites
Microsoft Office OpenOffice (cross platform)
LibreOffice (cross platform)
KOffice – Linux
HTML Editors
Adobe Dreamweaver
Microsoft FrontPage
BlueGriffon (cross platform)
Digital Image / Photo Editing / Raster Image Editing Software
Adobe Photoshop GIMP (cross platform)
Image Viewers with RAW Capability
Photo Mechanic (Win and Mac OSX) Xee (Mac OSX only)
Vector Drawing Programs
Adobe Illustrator
Macromedia FreeHand
Inkscape (cross platform)
(Computer Aided Drawing)
AutoCAD QCad (Linux/UNIX * Mac OS X)
(3D Modeling)
AutoDesk Inventor
Blender (cross platform)
Povray 3D
Tulip 3D
Screen Recording
(to capture what you are doing on your computer and save as a video file)
CamStudio (for Windows only)
Desktop Publishing
Adobe Indesign
Microsoft Publisher
Scribus (cross platform)
PDF Creation
Adobe Acrobat PDF Creator (Windows only)OpenOffice

* This capability is built into Mac OS X via the print function.

Text Editors
Notepad jEdit (cross platform)
Notepad++ (for Windows only)
Syn (for Windows only)
Smultron (for Mac OS X only)
Web Servers
Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Services) Apache (cross platform)
Web Browsers
Microsoft Internet Explorer
Mozilla Firefox (cross platform)
Email Software
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Entourage
Thunderbird (cross platform)
FTP Clients
(File Transfer Protocol)
Ipswitch WS_FTP Pro
Filezilla – FTP and SFTP (cross platform)
Cyberduck – FTP and SFTP (for Mac OS X only)
SFTP Programs
(SSH Secure File Transfer)
Filezilla – FTP and SFTP (cross platform)
Cyberduck – FTP and SFTP (for Mac OS X only)
WinSCP – SFTP and SCP client for Windows
PuTTY – SFTP and Telnet client for Windows
Apple Remote Desktop (ARD) TightVNC – VNC server and client for Windows, Linux, and Unix
Chicken of the VNC – VNC client for Mac OS X
OSXvnc – VNC server for Mac OS X
Hard Disk Utilities / Partitioning Tools
Norton PartitionMagic GParted & GParted LiveCD (Gnome Partition Editor) – (cross platform)
Anti-Virus Software
Norton Anti-virus
ClamWin – (for Windows only)
ClamXav – (for Mac OS X only)
Keyboarding / Typing Software
Tux Typing 2
Edutainment / Educational Software
The KDE Edutainment Project
FREEDUC – resource for FOSS educational software
A List of Open Source Software for Education
Gcompris – educational softare for kids ages 2 to 10
Childsplay – various games for ages 1-9
KStars – a simualted planetarium (astronomy)
Kalzium – periodic table
KWord Quiz – flash cards
KTouch – teaches typing
Tux Paint – vector and raster image editing program for young children
KTurtle – Logo programming for young children
Math Programs
Geometer’s Sketchpad or Cabri GeoGebra – joins geometry, algebra and calculus
Dr. Geo – interactive geometry software
TuxMath – math game for kids
Music Composition
Rosegarden – similar to Cubase
Solfege – ear training
Montessori Bells
Sound Editing Programs
Sound Forge Audacity (cross platform)
Video Editing
iMovie KINO
Brainstorming, Mind Mapping, Flowcharting, Planning
Inpsiration FreeMind
View Your Mind
Compression Utilities
WinZip 7-Zip
The Unarchiver
Accounting / Personal Finance
Quicken GnuCash
Grisbi – (cross platform)
Course Management Systems (CMS) and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)
Click here for a full list of non-open source CMS/VLEs
Campus Pipeline
TeleTOP cms
Virtual Campus
Sentient Discover
MindEdge CMS
Click here for a full list of Open Source CMS/VLEs
Also click here
Moodle – used in 74 countries in 34 diferent languages!
MyClassroom – in use by several middle schools and high schools in the US and around the world!
Wordcircle CMS
CourseWork – used by Stanford University
COSE (Creation of Study Environments)
Claroline – used in 62 countries and 28 languages!
ClassWeb 2.0
Student Information Systems (SIS)
Open Admin for Schools
Virtual PC for Mac QEMU
Q – cocoa port of QEMU for Mac OS X
Virtual PC for Windows
VirtualBox (cross platform)

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skills for linux administrator

User & group administration
Configuring Linux Networking
Installing and configuring Linux Operating system
Basic Operating System Concepts
Basic experience in Shell Scripts.
Knowledge on apache server
Knowledge on FTP,SSH,SSL,Telnet & xinetd
Knowledge about File system hierarchy
Basic Network Troubleshooting
Installing & configuring Linux Software
Monitoring Server Performance
Configuring Linux Software RAID
Expanding Linux Partitions with LVM
Network Based Linux Installation like NFS, HTTP & FTP
In-depth knowledge on Linux operating system
Experience in shell and Perl scripting
Kernel compilation and fine tuning.
Configuring Linux Firewalls Using iptables
Configuring & Managing Disk Usage With Quotas
Knowledge on TCP/IP
File system Management
Expertise in managing and configuring various services like DNS, NIS, NFS, APACHE, FTP, DHCP & SAMBA
Knowledge on High Availability and Clustering.
High Level of Troubleshooting skill

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Linux some common things

1. In Linux systems, to document access to equipment.2. Linux kernel boot, from the file / etc / fstab to read the file system to load.

3. Linux file system, each file to identify with the i node.

4. All the disk block consists of four parts, namely, guide blocks, special blocks, i node table blocks and blocks of data storage

5. Links divided into: hard links and symbolic links.

6. Super-block contains the i node table and the free block table and other important file system information.

7. A certain file permissions: d-rw–r – -r -, with values expressed as to the authority, then the octal number: 644, the file attribute is a directory.

8. Foreground the process of starting to use Ctrl + c to terminate. 8. Foreground the process of starting to use Ctrl + c to terminate.

9. Static routing settings, if the network topology change is required by the system administrator to modify the routing settings.

10. The important task of network management: control and monitoring.

11. Install Linux system hard disk partition, there must be two kinds of partition types: file system partition and swap partition.

13. Prepared by Shell to run the script file must be given before the execute permission.

14. System management tasks is to be able to achieve in a distributed environment, programs and data security protection, backup, restore and update.

15. The system swap partition as a virtual memory system, a regional.

16. Kernel is divided into process management systems, memory management system, I / O management system and document management systems, four sub-systems.

17. Kernel configuration is the system administrator to change the system configuration hardware to conduct a major operation.

18. In the installation of Linux systems, use the netconfig program to configure the network, the installation program prompts the user for a step by step, type the host name, domain names, domain name server, IP address, gateway address and subnet mask and other necessary information.

19. That uniquely identifies each user is the user ID and user name.

20. RIP protocol is the most common is an internal agreement, commonly known as dynamic routing information protocol. Agreement is the most common is an internal agreement, commonly known as dynamic routing information protocol.

21. In the Linux system, all the contents are represented as files, organize files in various ways is called the file system.

22. DHCP dynamic IP address assignment can be achieved. 22. DHCP dynamic IP address assignment can be achieved.

23. System network management object is a server administrator, user and server processes and system resources.

24. Network management usually monitoring, transmission and management of three parts, of which management component of the entire network management center.

25. When you want to delete this system without access to the device driver must compile the kernel, when the kernel does not support the device driver on the system, you must upgrade to the kernel.

26 Ping command to test the network, the local systems are able to get to a remote host, so I often used to test network connectivity.

27. Vi editor has two operating modes: command mode and input mode.

28. Can use ls-al command to see the file permissions, the permissions of each file are in 10 bits and is divided into four sections, which accounted for a paragraph that file type, accounting for 3 second paragraph that the owner of the file permissions for the file.

29. The distinction between process and procedure lies in its dynamic nature, dynamic creation and termination of the process from creation to the termination of the basic state can have: Run state, ready state and wait state (blocked state).

30. DNS is actually distributed in the internet database of information on the host, its role is to achieve the IP address and host name conversion.

31. Apache is to achieve WWW server function of the application, known as the “Browse web server” in the server-side web services to provide users here is the apache application.

32. In the Linux system can have two types of backup: a backup system backup and user. Where the former refers to the operating system backup, which refers to applications and user files backed up. Where the former refers to the operating system backup, which refers to applications and user files backed up.

33. CD-ROM standard file system type is iso9660.

34. When the lilo.conf configuration has been completed, bring it into force, should run the command and parameters is lilo.

35. In using the ls command, use the octal display non-printing characters should be used to parameter-b.

36. Linux that supports Windows 9.x/2000 long file name file system type is vfat.

37. Set limits on the use of disk space a user command is quota.

38 In the Linux system, used to store system configuration files and subdirectories needed directory is /etc.

39. Hard link can only be built on the file link. Symbolic links across different file systems can be created. Symbolic links across different file systems can be created.

40. Socket file attribute bit is s.

41. The end of the background process command is kill.

42. There are two ways to run the process, that is independently run and use the parent process to run.

43. Links are divided into hard links and symbolic links.

44. In the super-user Linux system, under the display of all running processes, you should use the command and parameters are ps-aux.

45. Pipeline file attribute bit is p.

46. Will be the standard output of the previous command, after a command as standard input, called pipes.

47. For the implementation of the right of the specified script command and parameters are chmod a + x filename.

48. Remote login commands are telnet.

49. To send 10 packets packets test connectivity with the host, you should use the commands and parameters are: ping 10.

50. DNS server process named named, when it starts to automatically load / etc directory of the named.conf file partition defined in the DNS database file.

51. Apache server process configuration file is httpd.conf.

52. In the Linux system, the compressed files generated after the suffix. Gz file command is gzip.

53. Edit a file using vi, it will be put into the file test.txt file, should be the command mode, type: w test.txt.

54 can be displayed on standard output the whole year calendar orders and parameters are cal-y.

55. In shell programming, the use of square brackets indicate that the rules of test conditions are: there must be space on both sides of the square brackets.

56. Check the installed file system / dev/had5 is normal, if the check is wrong, then the auto-repair, the command and parameters are fsck-a / dev/had5.

57. Windows9.x environment shared Unix / Linux users in the directory tool is a Samba server.

58. System Administrator is responsible for system resource management, system performance management, device management, security management and system performance monitoring.

59 In the Linux system to test DNS server is able to correctly resolve the domain name of the client-side command, use the command nslookup.

60. In the Linux system, the second IDE channel hard disk (slave) was identified as hdb.

61. When the system administrator needs to upgrade the kernel version and change the system hardware configuration, should be re-compile the kernel.

62. If you just want to modify the system IP address, should be amended / etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 configuration file.

63. When the LAN there are no conditions for the establishment DNS server, but want to LAN users can use the computer name to visit each other, we should configure / etc / hosts file.

64. In the vi editor environment, using the Esc key to model.

65. Slackware Linux 9.0 typically use ext3 file system, the system’s total disk block consists of four parts.

66. To / home/stud1/naresh directory do archive compression, the compressed generated naresh.tar.gz file, and save this file to the / home directory, to achieve this task tar command format tar zcvf /home/naresh.tar.gz /home/stud1/naresh.

67. Pipeline from the former standard output as a command after a command standard input.

68. In the use of manual methods to configure the network, you can modify / etc / HOSTNAME file to change the host name, to configure the computer’s domain name resolution client, the need to configure / etc / resolv.conf file.

69. Startup process is to manually start and scheduling are two ways to start, where to start commonly used scheduling command at, batch, and crontab.

70. domain name is, if you want to configure a domain name server should be defined in the named.conf file, DNS database, working directory.

71. Sendmail e-mail system uses two main protocols are: SMTP and POP, the former is used to send the message, which is used for receiving mail.

72. DHCP is short for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, its role is: To network host allocation of IP addresses.

73. At present the use of a proxy server software package there are a variety of teaching materials used in the squid.

74. Rm command to delete files or directories, the main difference is whether to use recursive switch-r or-R.

75. Mv command can move files and directories, you can also rename files and directories.

76. Routing Protocol (RIP) of the number of hops that must pass before the destination gateway number, RIP acceptable to jump the longest distance is 15.

77. Ping command is used to test network connectivity, ping command through the ICMP protocol (internet control message protocol) to achieve.

78. Nfs protocol used to implement Unix (/ linux) file system shared between hosts.
79. In the Linux operating system, devices are accessed through special files.

80. Shell is not only the user command interpreter, it is also a powerful programming language. Bash is the Linux default shell. bash is the Linux default shell.

81. Use “;”; symbol redirects the contents of the output appended to the back of the original.

82. To increase a user’s command is: adduser or useradd.

83 for string search using grep command.

84. Use * for each match the number of characters.

85. / Sbin directory is used to store the system administrator using the management procedure

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