Linux Important System Files

File Purpose Where to Find More Information
User and Security Files
/etc/group User group information group, chmod
/etc/npasswd npasswd configuration file npasswd
/etc/shadow shadow password file password, npasswd
/etc/passwd User account information password, chmod
Networking Files
/etc/bootptab Internet Bootstrap Protocol server database bootptab
/etc/exports Directories to export to NFS clients exports
/etc/gateways List of gateways routed
/etc/hosts Hostname to IP address mapping file route
/etc/hosts.equiv Lists of trusted hosts and remote users hosts.equiv
/etc/inetd.conf inetd configuration file inetd
/etc/named.conf named default initialization file named
/etc/networks Known networks route
/usr/lib/named or/etc/named.d named configuration files named
/etc/smb.conf or /etc/samba/smb.conf SAMBA configuration file smb.conf
/etc/snmpd.conf SNMP daemon configuration file snmpd.conf
/etc/ftpaccess FTP configuration file ftpaccess
/etc/httpd/access.conf HTTP access configuration file
/etc/httpd/httpd.conf HTTP daemon configuration file
/etc/httpd/srm.conf HTTP server resource management configuration file
/etc/services Network services list services(5)
X-Windows Files
/etc/XF86Config or /etc/X11/XF86Config X-Server configuration file XF86Config, xf86config
/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc xinit configuration file xinit
$HOME/.xinitrc User-specific xinit configuration file xinit
$HOME/.fvwmrc fvwm configuration file fvwm, X
/usr/lib/X11/system.fvwmrc System default MWM configuration file fvwm, X
/usr/lib/X11/app-defaults Application-specific defaults X
$HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname Host-specific defaults X
System Start-Up Files
/etc/inittab init configuration file inittab
/etc/lilo.conf Lilo configuration file lilo.conf, lilo
/etc/rc* System start-up scripts init, initscript
System Log Files
/etc/syslog.conf System login configuration file syslog.conf
/var/log/message General system log file syslogd
Miscellaneous Files
Systemwide shell configuration files man-page for respective shell
User-specifc shell configuration files man-page for respective shell
/etc/sysconfig Miscellaneous configuration files

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FTP Bash script for auto file transfer and backup


filename="backup-$(date '+%F-%H%M').tar.gz"

echo "Creating a backup file $filename of $backupdir."

# Make a tar gzipped backup file
tar -cvzf  "$filename" "$backupdir"

ftp -in <<EOF
open $ftp_site
user $username $passwd
put $filename 

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Free Proxy Softwares

To visit YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and some other websites that are blocked in China, sometimes I use free online proxy tools, but most of the time, I like using free proxy softwares, since they are faster and free of ADs.Among those free proxy softwares, below 10 are the most popular.

1. Freegate

Free Proxy Software
The Freegate proxy software supports both English and Chinese languages, you can download and run it without any installation.
When Freegate runs, it will automatically open Dynaweb homepage in IE, which you can turn off in the settings. For any other browser, you can set the browser HTTP proxy to

2. UltraSurf

Free Proxy Software
The free proxy software UltraSurf also supports English and Chinese, and you can also download and run it without any installation.
When UltraSurf runs, it will automatically open Ultrareach homepage in IE, and of course you can turn it off in the settings. For any other browser, you can set the browser HTTP proxy to

3. GTunnel

Free Proxy Software
The GTunnel proxy software also supports Chinese and English languages.
The most powerful feature of GTunnel is that you can access the proxy network with your GTalk or Skype account.
When GTunnel runs, it will automatically open Garden Networks homepage in IE, if you like to use GTunnel on any other browser, just set the browser HTTP proxy to

4. Tor

Free Proxy Software
The free proxy software Tor supports a lot of languages, such as English, Chinese, French, and so on.
For windows, you can download the Tor Browser Bundle, which can be used directly without any installation, or you can download the Installation Bundle and install it.
To run the Tor proxy software, just set the browser HTTP proxy to, but most of the time, you also need to add some bridges.

5. GappProxy

Free Proxy Software
GappProxy is an http proxy software based on Google App Engine, and its instructions are written in Chinese, here is the English instructions translated by Google.
You can download the GappProxy windows client and run it without installation, but most of the time, you need to create a new FetchServer with Google App Engine and Python.
To run GappProxy, you need to set the browser HTTP proxy to, or you can check out this post for how to install and use GappProxy.

6. Hyk-proxy

Free Proxy Software
The free proxy software Hyk-proxy is also built on Google App Engine and Java with Chinese instruction, here is the English instruction offered by Google Translate.
You need to create a Google App Engine application to use the hyk-proxy client, for more details, you can check out this post.
To run Hyk-proxy, you need to set the browser HTTP proxy to

7. Your Freedom

Free Proxy Software
Create a free account on the Your Freedom website, download and install the suitable client for your computer system, change your browser HTTP proxy to, then you can visit those blocked websites.
The configuration will take a few minutes, but automatically.

8. GPass

Free Proxy Software
You can download the GPass proxy software and run it without installation.
The most powerful feature of GPass is that you can access the proxy network with Tor or Skype.
You need to set the browser HTTP proxy to

9. Tunnelier

Free Proxy Software
You need a SSH account to use the free proxy software Tunnelier.
For SSH account, you can use your own hosting, or search for a free account.
You need to set the browser HTTP proxy to
Install the Firefox add-on AutoProxy , then you can switch the above nine free proxy softwares from one to another easily, no need to change the browser HTTP proxy address every time.
Or you can use below free proxy software, which is free of browser network settings.

10. Hotspot Shield

Free Proxy Software
Besides English, French and Chinese, Hotspot Shield also supports Arabic, Persian, Russian and Vietnamese.
You download the Hotspot Shield software and install it, then you can use the free proxy services, but there will be ADs when you visit open any web page.

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Compress Videos to 50% With no Quality Loss

ompression is something which everyone tries to get in MP3 or Video files because they might wanna carry those videos or music files on their mobile phone or any other portable devices, and there are many MP3 compressors available in the market but when it comes to video compression you might think that quality may decrease but that’s not the case.

With Handbrake you compress videos to 50% and that too without decreasing any quality. Now what is HandBrake – HandBrake is an open-source, GPL-licensed, multiplatform, multithreaded video transcoder, available for MacOS X, Linux and Windows.
So you can download this awesome software by going to the websites download page link is below .:



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Firefox Speed Booster

Features of SpeedyFox .:

1. Boosting Firefox startup speed upto 3 times.
2. Boosting Browsing Speed.
3. Quicker Operation with Cookies.

How to use SpeedyFox .:
1. After Downloading SpeedyFox Run it.
2. You will a window like below just click on Speed Up My Firefox ! ( Remember Firefox should be close )

3. Now it will run its process and within sec it will complete and give you success message like below now just enjoy faster Firefox.1

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How to Increase Torrent Speed by 50%

Torrents are the main source for the latest software’s, games, movies, music etc. as they provide everything @ a faster pace so what about if we can tweak its speed to download stuffs more fastly so below is the guide for tweaking UTorrent settings for increasing its speed .:

Procedure for Tweaking UTorrent Client :

1. Choose the best Bit torrent client : this can be difficult but this is really important that you choose the best client for downloading purpose, as we compare through the users opinion UTorrent is the best Torrent client for downloading Torrents, download UTorrent
2. Get the best Seeder and Leecher .: now downloading entirely depends on the seeders and leechers so getting the best with highest numbers would be the best options for the faster downloads.
3. Enable Firewall Exception : firewalls are the main blocking units which can block all the connections of your bit torrent client so to enable firewall exception is really important, just open UTorrent > Preferences > Connection > Add Windows Firewall Exception.
Increase Torrent Speed by 50%
4. Change net.max_halfopen : change the default value for net.max_halfopen under Preferences > Advanced > net.max_halfopen , its value would be 100 or low just change its value to 80 like in the below image.
Increase Torrent Speed by 50%
5. Enable Protocol Encryption : enabling protocol encryption may increase your download speed well this step may work work for you or not so just experiment between Enabling & Disabling option. To enable Protocol Encryption just go to Preferences > Bittorent > Enable Protocol Encryption.
Increase Torrent Speed by 50%
6. Change Bandwidth and Connection Settings : Change the values for bandwidth and Connection as in the image below .:
Increase Torrent Speed by 50%
That’s it now these were some of the tweaks for UTorrent Client which I came across and which may help you in increasing your torrent downloading speed so have fun experimenting different settings and if you have any other tweak for faster downloading then please share by commenting below.

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Download Your Laptop Drivers here 


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